[338] Since the 1930s, prices and wages had been controlled, but money had been plentiful. Spencer Tucker says, "The German General Staff had formulated extraordinarily harsh terms that shocked even the German negotiator.

Farm wives supervised family care and the household interior, to which strict standards of cleanliness, order, and thrift applied. In 1944–45, Soviet forces completely or partially liberated Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Denmark, and Norway. Poland was restored and most of the provinces of Posen and West Prussia, and some areas of Upper Silesia were reincorporated into the reformed country after plebiscites and independence uprisings. In 9 AD a coalition of tribes under the Cherusci chieftain Arminius, who was familiar with Roman tactical doctrines, defeated a sizeable Roman force in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. [315], In the East, the Soviets crushed dissent and imposed another police state, often employing ex-Nazis in the dreaded Stasi. Under his leadership, the German government sought to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union and improve relations with the German Democratic Republic, a policy known as the Ostpolitik. By the 1890s, German colonial expansion in Asia and the Pacific (Kiauchau in China, the Marianas, the Caroline Islands, Samoa) led to frictions with Britain, Russia, Japan and the United States. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. Jarausch, Konrad H., and Michael Geyer, eds. [260] However, the spring offensives all failed, as the Allies fell back and regrouped, and the Germans lacked the reserves necessary to consolidate their gains. The campaigns and insurrections of the Saxon Wars lasted from 772 to 804. Weimar Classicism ("Weimarer Klassik") was a cultural and literary movement based in Weimar that sought to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical, and Enlightenment ideas. World War II resulted in the destruction of Germany's political and economic infrastructure and led directly to its partition, considerable loss of territory (especially in the East), and historical legacy of guilt and shame.[306]. The German invasion of Belgium was not important because the British decision had already been made and the British were more concerned with the fate of France. Classification and naming of internationally traded commodities and exported goods was still in progress and the structure of production and export had changed during four decades. During the 1st century CE Roman legions conducted extended campaigns into Germania magna, the area north of the Upper Danube and east of the Rhine, attempting to subdue the various tribes. Prussia as one of the winners at the Congress of Vienna, gained extensive territory. In the 2nd century BC, Germanic tribes move south and east from Scandinavia.

The 1356 decree of the Golden Bull stipulated that all future emperors were to be chosen by a college of only seven – four secular and three clerical – electors. For example, 221 of the 243 mines in Silesia were owned by nobles or by the King of Prussia himself. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The disagreement served as a pretext for the Seven Weeks War between Austria and Prussia, that broke out in June 1866. Eventually numerous lines criss-crossed the Ruhr area and other industrial centers and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. A peerage could permanently boost a rich industrial family into the upper reaches of the establishment. [345], Meanwhile, in adopting the Godesberg Program in 1959, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) largely abandoned Marxism ideas and embraced the concept of the market economy and the welfare state. These associations regulate competition and allowed small firms to function in the shadow of much larger companies.

"The French Revolution and German industrialization: The new institutional economics rewrites history", "Building the Nation among Visions of German Empire", "A fistful of Fredericks – He considers the "invention of tradition" in Prussia, and the importance of memorials and ceremonies of remembrance in shaping patriotic identity", "A German Voice of Opposition to Germanization (1914)", "Germanization Policy: Speech by Ludwik Jazdzewski in a Session of the Prussian House of Representatives (January 15, 1901)", "Hans Ulrich Wehler-The German Empire 1871-1918-Berg (1985), p 157", "The Political Alignment of the Centre Party in Wilhelmine Germany: A Study of the Party's Emergence in Nineteenth-Century Württemberg", "Internal migration before and during the Industrial Revolution: the case of France and Germany", "A History of the International Chemical Industry", "The political parties in the Weimar Republic", "Interpreting the 20th Century: The Struggle Over Democracy, The Holocaust, Pamela Radcliff, pp.

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