Such parts as may be subjected to extreme heat and the fretting action of molten material, as the tuyere and slag breasts of blast furnaces, and the fire bridges and bed plates of reverberatory furnaces, are often made in cast iron with double walls, a current of water or air being kept circulating through the intermediate space.
greenstone belt - an elongated group of specific rocks derived from molten lava intruded into pre-existing rock or extruded onto surface. The open-hearth process consists in making molten steel out of pig or cast iron and " scrap," i.e. Molten cryolite dissolves roughly 30% of its weight of pure alumina, so that when ready for treatment the solution contains about the same proportion of what may be termed "available" aluminium as does the fused double chloride of aluminium and sodium.

(10) The volcano was spurting out rivers of. :ss, which is the decarbonization of cast iron by forcing a blast of air through the mass of metal when in the molten condition. In this process molten pig iron with much silicon but little sulphur has its silicon oxidized to silica and thus slagged off, by means of a blast of air playing on the iron through a blanket of burning coke which covers it. fluorine for the manufacturing process was generated on-site by electrolysis of a molten metallic fluoride (perhaps potassium fluoride KF? After the charge has been fully melted, it is held in the molten state from 30 to 60 minutes. As desulphurizing seems to need the direct and energetic action of carbon on the molten iron itself, and as molten iron absorbs carbon most greedily, it is hard to see how the blast-furnace is to desulphurize without carburizing almost to saturation, i.e. why the molten metal can be freed from mechanically suspended slag more perfectly in them than in the Bessemer converter or the open-hearth furnace. Clearly the mushy mixture of solid austenite and molten iron of which the metal in region 2 consists cannot cohere under either the blows or the pressure by means of which welding must be done.

There is evidence for volcanic type activity suggesting a once molten core. The infusibility of alumina was no longer prohibitive, for the molten oxide is easily reduced by carbon. In foreign mints the molten metal is generally transferred from the crucible to the moulds by dipping crucibles or iron ladles covered with clay. Cane is produced from a solid mass of molten glass, tube from a mass hollowed by blowing. The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought into the shape of truncated cones weighing 110 to 130 lb each. (4) The Acker-Douglas process electrolyses sodium chloride in the molten state, employing a cathode consisting of molten lead. " The process consisted in spreading the leaf on a thin film of blown glass and pressing molten glass on to the leaf so that the molten glass cohered with the film of glass through the pores of the metallic leaf. The matte also, in all economically planned works, is conveyed, still molten, by electric cranes from the furnace to the converters. The duty on flint-glass was imposed on the molten glass in the crucibles and on the unfinished goods. LAVA FLOWS These are flows of extremely hot molten rocks extruded by the volcano. Rosette " copper is obtained as thin plates of a characteristic dark-red colour, by pouring water upon the surface of the molten metal, and removing the crust formed. When the Heroult furnace is used for completing the purification of molten steel begun in the Bessemer or open-hearth process, and this is its most appropriate use, the process carried out in it may be divided into two stages, first dephosphorization, and second deoxidation and desulphurization. The oxygen of the blast having been thus taken up by the molten metal, its nitrogen issues from the mouth of the converter as a pale spark-bearing cone. It prohibits the making of molten images (v. 10, II), and omits the prohibition of molten images (xx. A pair of electric arcs play between these electrodes and the molten steel, passing through the layer of slag, G, and generating much heat. Heat the coated end of your wire just until it changes color, then heat a glass rod until it makes a molten ball of glass. It is true that Reaumur in 1722 described his method of making molten steel in crucibles, and that the Hindus have for centuries done this on a small scale, though they let the molten steel resolidify in the crucible.

This keeps the upper part of the mass molten, so that it continues to flow down and feed the pipe during the early part of its formation in the lower and quickercooling part of the ingot. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances. Alumina itself is so refractory that it cannot be melted save by the oxyhydrogen blowpipe or the electric arc, and except in the molten state it is not susceptible of decomposition by any chemical reagent.

_ _ _= For its formation, ferrochromium is added to the molten iron. The resulting surface is usually duller and less lustrous than that obtained by the use of molten zinc. Thus we have reasons enough why the blast-furnace has displaced all competing processes, without taking into account its further advantage in lending itself easily to working on an enormous scale and with trifling consumption of labour, still further lessened by the general practice of transferring the molten cast iron in enormous ladles into the vessels in which its conversion into steel takes place. Mixtures of the molten salt are used to harden some metals. It is most commonly applied by dipping the item into a large tank of molten zinc.

If, ignoring temporarily and for simplicity the fact that part of the carbon may exist in the state of graphite, we consider the behaviour of iron in cooling from the molten state, AB and BC give the temperature at which, for any given percentage of carbon, solidification begins, and Aa, aB, and Bc that at which it ends. The term lava is applied by geologists to all matter of volcanic origin, which is, or has been, in a molten state. electric furnaced alloy steels are produced in electric arc furnaces and scrap rather than molten metal is used as the base material. (3) The volcano erupted molten lava. Vapour baths of iron are used in connexion with boiling anthracene (335°), anthraquinone (368°),sulphur(444°),phosphoruspentasulphide(518°); molten lead may also be used. Runny molten lava spewed out of the volcano, splashing into puddles below the cone-shaped opening. Zinc is largely used for "galvanizing" iron, sheets of clean iron being immersed in a bath of the molten metal and then removed, so that a coat of zinc remains on the iron, which is thereby protected from atmospheric corrosion. Most metals when molten are capable of dissolving at least small proportions of carbon, which, in general, leads to a deterioration in metallicity, except in the case of iron, which by the addition of small percentages of carbon gains in elasticity and tensile strength with little loss of plasticity. Both carbon and alloy steels are produced in electric arc furnaces and scrap rather than molten metal is used as the base material. 242938 (1894)] passes anhydrous ammonia over heated sodium to form sodamide, which is then brought in a molten condition into contact with carbon: NaNH 2 +C = NaNC+H 2. Because the outer and inner layers are integrally united, this excess of contraction of the inner layers makes them draw outward towards and against the outer layers, and because of their thus drawing outward the molten lake within no longer suffices to fill completely the central space, so that its upper surface begins to sink.

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