[34], The next day, 3 July, Rommel ordered the Afrika Korps to resume its attack on the Ruweisat ridge with the Italian XX Motorised Corps on its southern flank.

[18] Lieutenant-General William Norrie (General officer commanding [GOC] XXX Corps) organised the position and started to construct three defended "boxes".

Although the Australian defenders had been forced back from Point 24, heavy casualties had been inflicted on 21st Panzer Division. Then Rommel with his panzers would launch a counter-attack and he would go on and seize Alexandria.

The battle, which was, in reality, a series of battles and has entered military legend. [18], The British position in Egypt was desperate, the rout from Mersa Matruh had created a panic in the British headquarters at Cairo, something later called "the Flap". Rommel’s actual handling of the battles of El Alamein was brilliant and he saved the German and Italian armies during his brilliant tactical retreat from the battle. [96] By 01:00 on 27 July, 24th Australian Infantry Brigade was to have captured the eastern end of the Miteirya ridge and would exploit toward the north-west.

With German forces pulled north, Auchinleck commenced Operation Bacon on July 14. The Germans suffered many losses, but Thoma continued to order further counter-attacks. This Italian failure frequently prevented the realisation of my plans. [5][67] In his appreciation of 27 July, Auchinleck wrote that the Eighth Army would not be ready to attack again until mid-September at the earliest. 4th New Zealand Brigade were still short of support weapons and also, by this time, ammunition.

[5][h], Italian anti-aircraft battery at Marsa Matrouh in June of 1942, Second Battle of Ruweisat Ridge (El Mreir), List of World War II North Africa Airfields. The Germans and Italian were doomed because that lacked a sufficient number of troops, relied on inadequate supplies, and had unrealistic objectives. The result was that the infantry and armour advanced independently and having reached the objective 50th RTR lost 23 tanks because they lacked infantry support. The German commander, General George Strumme went forward to inspect the line but died of a heart attack. During the period 1 to 27 June the Desert Air Force flew nearly 15,400 sorties.

[81], To relieve pressure on Ruweisat ridge, Auchinleck ordered the Australian 9th Division to make another attack from the north.

Attacking, they made gains on the ridge in three days of fighting and turned back substantial counterattacks from elements of the 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions.

Axis positions near El Alamein, only 66 mi (106 km) from Alexandria, were dangerously close to the ports and cities of Egypt, the base facilities of the Commonwealth forces and the Suez Canal. 1220.

A number of pockets of resistance were left behind the forward troops' advance which impeded the move forward of reserves, artillery, and support arms. In fact the actual number on 26 June was 104 compared with 155 tanks in Eighth Army.
Doctrinal changes introduced by Bernard Montgomery, assisted by massive advantages in supply produced a much-needed Allied victory that brought the dominance of Erwin Rommel’s formidable Afrika Korps to an end.. The Panzerarmee withdrew, ultimately to Tunisia; within days of El Alamein, Anglo-American forces landed in Morocco. On 29 June, he ordered XXX Corps—the 1st South African, 5th and 10th Indian divisions—to take the coastal sector on the right of the front and XIII Corps—the 2nd New Zealand Division and 4th Indian divisions—to be on the left. The initial night attack went well, with 736 prisoners taken, mostly from the Italian Trento and Trieste motorised divisions. The duties of comradeship, for me particularly as their Commander-in-Chief, compel me to state unequivocally that the defeats which the Italian formations suffered at Alamein in early July were not the fault of the Italian soldier. A few thousand Hong Kongers protested the ...read more, The transistor radio was a technological marvel that put music literally into consumers’ hands in the mid-1950s.

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Rommel did not have any such advantage.

Montgomery was a methodical men and he used massed artillery with infantry attacks with limited objectives to weaken the German lines. [95] However, XIII Corps commander—Lieutenant-General William Gott—rejected this and ordered the attack but on a centre line 1 mi (1.6 km) south of the original plan which he incorrectly believed was mine-free. [5][h], Coordinates: 30°50′N 28°57′E / 30.833°N 28.950°E / 30.833; 28.950, Italian anti-aircraft battery at Marsa Matrouh in June of 1942, Second Battle of Ruweisat Ridge (El Mreir). In an effort to cut the coast road, Rommel directed the panzers to attack east towards Ruweisat Ridge before turning north. On 16 July, the Australians—supported by British tanks—launched an attack to try to take Point 24 but were forced back by German counter-attacks,[66] suffering nearly fifty percent casualties. The tank unit had not been trained in close infantry support and failed to co-ordinate with the Australian infantry.

The Italian commander ordered his battalions to fight their way out independently but the Ariete lost 531 men (about 350 were prisoners), 36 pieces of artillery, six (or eight?) They decided to replace Auchinleck, appointing the XIII Corps commander, William Gott, to the Eighth Army command and General Sir Harold Alexander as C-in-C Middle East Command.

© 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. [35] There was a sharp armoured exchange south of Ruweisat ridge during the morning and the main Axis advance was held. On the left, the initial attempt to clear the western end of Ruweisat failed but at 08:00 a renewed attack by the reserve battalion succeeded.
[12] As the 21st Panzer moved on Minqar Qaim, the 2nd New Zealand Division found itself surrounded but broke out on the night of 27/28 June without serious losses and withdrew east. [45] Ramsden tasked the Australian 9th Division with 44th Royal Tank Regiment under command with the Tel el Eisa objective and the South African 1st Division with eight supporting tanks, Tel el Makh Khad. [110], The battle was a stalemate, but it had halted the Axis advance on Alexandria (and then Cairo and ultimately the Suez Canal). The plan was to break the enemy line south of Miteirya ridge and exploit north-west. On 30 June, the 90th Light Division was still 15 mile… The plan was that the New Zealand 2nd Division—with the remains of Indian 5th Division and 7th Motor Brigade under its command—would swing north to threaten the Axis flank and rear. [113], In early August, Winston Churchill and General Sir Alan Brooke—the Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS)—visited Cairo on their way to meet Joseph Stalin in Moscow. 4th New Zealand Brigade were still short of support weapons and also, by this time, ammunition. [96][97][98] That evening, Australian 24th Brigade attacked Tel el Makh Khad with the tanks of 50th RTR in support. He had returned to Germany for treatment as he was genuinely ill. His subordinates, followed his plans for the battle very closely.

[32] This force encountered the Ariete Armoured Division's artillery, which was driving on the southern flank of the division as it attacked Ruweisat. On the other hand, for Rommel the situation continued to be grave as, despite successful defensive operations, his infantry had suffered heavy losses and he reported that "the situation is critical in the extreme".

Sent with a small German force to help the Axis against the British after the Italians had suffered severe defeat, Rommel–reaching Tripoli in February ...read more, The Battle of Kursk occurred in July 1943 around the Soviet city of Kursk in western Russia, as Germany launched Operation Citadel, Hitler’s response to his devastating defeat by the Soviet Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad. Many tanks lost their tracks as they advanced.

Though a stalemate, Auchinleck had won an important strategic victory in halting Rommel's advance east.

At daybreak on 22 July, the British armoured brigades again failed to advance. Germany only became involved in North Africa because of their alliance with Italy.

While preparing the Alamein positions, Auchinleck fought strong delaying actions, first at Mersa Matruh on 26–27 June and then Fuka on 28 June. Rommel was later to blame the failure to break through to the Nile on how the sources of supply to his army had dried up and how: then the power of resistance of many Italian formations collapsed. The raiding parties were to be provided by 1st Armoured Division. u/john1g.

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